Polyps in the uterus and cervix – what are they and how to treat them

Polyps are clusters of cells that form in different parts of our body. In this article from the School of Women's Health Encyclopedia, we will look at endometrial and cervical polyps, which are found only in the woman's body.

Maria Zavialova

What are polyps?

Polyps in the female reproductive system appear in the uterus or on the cervix. These are localized tissue growths of the endometrium or of the cervix. You may have one polyp, for example, on your cervix, or you may have many at the same time on your cervix and on your uterus. Their size also varies: from several millimeters to several centimeters.

These things may attach to the uterine or cervix wall by a large base (sessile) or a thin stalk (pedunculated). Most often, they occur in women after the age of twenty, who have given birth to more than one child. Polyps are almost never diagnosed to girls before the beginning of menstruation.

The majority – 99% of them – are benign (noncancerous). However, they can affect the course of your menstruation or make it difficult to become pregnant.

Polyp detection during hysteroscopy


The same as endometriosis, science does not yet know the exact answer to the question of why polyps appear. It is believed that this may be due to an increased concentration of estrogen receptors and a decreased concentration of progesterone hormone receptors. In addition, the age of 40-50 years is a risk factor: during this period, these pathology is detected most often, which also coincides with hormonal changes at this time.

Causes of cervical polyps

Other causes may include:

  • Chronic inflammation of the cervix, vagina, or uterus, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Chronic inflammation of the endometrium
  • Clogged blood vessels near the cervix
  • Pregnancy miscarriage
  • Abortion
  • Pregnancy
поліпи polyps
Polyps in the uterus and cervix

Causes of uterine polyps

Specialists believe that the risk increases in women:

  • with obesity
  • with high blood pressure
  • during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy
  • using tamoxifen against breast cancer

More and more women relieve tension with a glass of wine every day. This disrupts the work of the liver, which is the main organ that “utilizes” sex hormones. Therefore, a daily glass of dry red wine increases the risk of a new polyp.

Symptoms of polyps

You may have no symptoms at all, like most women with polyps. The rest may have the following symptoms:

  • Periods is heavier than usual
  • Bleeding after sex
  • Vaginalleeding after menopause
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Vaginal discharge with an unpleasant smell

Symptoms of endometrial polyps may also include irregular/unpredictable periods and the inability to get or maintain a pregnancy. Yellow or white mucous discharge from the vagina can also indicate these formations in the cervix.

If you have any of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor.


Uterine polyps can be associated with infertility. If you have them and are unable to have children, removing the polyps may allow you to become pregnant.

Very rarely, polyps can be cancerous or precancerous. Examination of the removed polyp may reveal this.


If polyps do not cause any symptoms, treatment may not be necessary. However, in case of heavy bleeding during or between periods, suspicion of oncology, problems with fertility or threat of miscarriage – therapy is required. It is also necessary to remove polyps that appear after menopause.

The following methods of treatment may be recommended by your doctor:

  • Medications to regulate hormonal balance, which will help relieve symptoms. However, they usually return after stopping the medications.
  • Hysteroscopy: with the help of surgical instruments inserted through the hysteroscope, the doctor removes the detected polyps. This is the most common procedure.
  • Curettage can be performed together with hysteroscopy. Using a hysteroscope to examine the inside of the uterus, the doctor scrapes the mucous membrane with a curette and removes all polyps. In the laboratory, the removed polyps are analyzed to determine whether they are benign or cancerous. This technique is effective for small polyps.
  • A radical method: a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be necessary if the polyps turn out to be cancerous. This is a rare situation, so never agree to such an operation if oncology is not detected in your polyps.

After removal, polyps usually do not return, so the prognosis is quite positive. The actual removal is a simple procedure with little discomfort, after which you can safely return home. However, only if your doctor adjusts your hormonal balance.

If not provide the right conditions for the qualitative transformation of the endometrium under the influence of progesterone, produced by the corpus luteum, polyps will appear again. Therefore, initially, even before surgical treatment, it is important to correct the work of the thyroid gland, ovaries and adrenal glands. Disruption of endocrine organs leads to disruption of progesterone production.

After the surgical removal of the polyp, it will be necessary to refrain from sexual contact for seven days. Then you can live as usual.

Traditionally, I remind you that any treatment should be prescribed only by a qualified doctor!

Remember: #happy_woman_is_healthy_and_educated and lives according to the principle of #got_knowledge_recommend_it_to_your_friend

You can learn more about your health and body from my courses: A girl becomes a woman, All about you. What it’s like to be a Woman, All about you 35+.

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You can always find your doctor at the Lior Medical Center.

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