Prostatitis – types, causes and when to seek for help

Prostatitis is an acute or chronic bacterial inflammation of the prostate gland that significantly reduces a man's quality of life.

Maria Zavialova

Prostatitis is the cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome, may reduce the intensity of orgasm and even be a reason for refusing to have sex.

Interested? Read on, and please share the article with your friends. Men and women alike often refuse to have sex because of pain in the perineal area or during friction. And all this is due to inflammatory swelling of the prostate.

Every man has a prostate gland. It is located under the bladder, in front of the rectum, and the urethra passes right through its center. The purpose of the prostate is to produce a fluid that contains sperm, and the mission of this fluid is to protect sperm on their way to the female egg. So, it is part of the male reproductive system.

What is prostatitis

Prostatitis is a common infection or inflammation of the prostate gland. It affects men of all ages and is the most common urinary tract disorder in men under 50. At the same time, it is the third most common urinary tract problem in men over 50.

Prostate location

There are several types of this disorder, which make it difficult to diagnose, and there is an incredible amount of outdated and false information about this disease. That’s why you should immediately consult a specialist who is familiar with modern methods of diagnosing and treating prostatitis.

Types, causes and symptoms of prostatitis

There are four types, each with its own causes and symptoms. Of course, some overlap, especially when it comes to chronic inflammation.

Acute bacterial prostatitis

The prostate gland becomes inflamed due to a urinary tract infection (UTI). There may be fever, painful and frequent urination or problems with it, pain in the scrotum or penis. A man may also notice that his urine has become shady. This condition requires immediate medical attention.

Chronic bacterial prostatitis

It occurs when bacteria in the prostate gland cause repeated sexually transmitted infections that are more difficult to treat. It happens regardless of a man’s age. Furthermore, it’s a myth that only older men have a diseased prostate. Symptoms are not permanent, they come and go. Among them:

  • Sudden need to urinate, often in the middle of the night;
  • Painful, difficult or sensitive urination;
  • Pain after ejaculation;
  • Pain in the lower back;
  • Pain in the rectum and perineum;
  • Blood in the semen;
  • Erectile dysfunction.

Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS)

This is the most common type of prostatitis – about 2-16% of men worldwide. It also causes 90% of prostatitis cases, mostly among men under 50. Symptoms are very similar to bacterial prostatitis, but no bacterial pathogens are detected during diagnosis. Among the causes are food sensitivities, psychosocial factors, i.e. stress, as well as physical injuries and damage to nearby nerves.

It is manifested by chronic pain in the pelvic area, perineum and genitals. There may also be pain during ejaculation, frequent urge to urinate and pain during urination, and urinary incontinence.

Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis

There is inflammation, but no symptoms. You find the inflammation during the manifestation of other problems. For example, a semen analysis for infertility can reveal asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. Or a blood test can reveal inflammation. Sure, it’s hard for our brain to imagine how an inflammatory process can be asymptomatic. It’s just that the symptoms are usually very mild, doctors call it an “unclear clinical picture”. Often occurs in men with sedentary work, with impaired carbohydrate metabolism, or overweight.

Risk factors

Different types of prostatitis have their own causes. In the case of bacterial prostatitis, these are usually infections of the bladder, stones in the bladder or prostate, and a history of inflammation. The exact risk factors for developing CPPS are unknown.

There are certain conditions under which a man has a higher chance of developing prostatitis, namely:

  • Injuries to the groin area;
  • Prostate biopsy;
  • Autoimmune diseases;
  • The presence of a urinary catheter;
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs);
  • Heavy physical activity with a full bladder;
  • Anal sex, especially injuries related to sexual abuse.

At the same time, there are common risk factors. Among them is age: men aged 50 to 59 are more than 3 times more likely to develop prostate inflammation than men aged 20 to 39.

Complications caused by prostatitis

The main thing is a significant decrease in the quality of life. Foremost, it is pain, a decrease in the quality of erection – “doctor, it’s not getting up like before” – and in general, the inability to enjoy sex. Coupled with insomnia due to the constant urge to urinate and urinary incontinence, it’s certainly not about joy or pleasure. Other complications include:

  • Infertility;
  • Anxiety or depression;
  • Spread of bacterial infection into the bloodstream (bacteremia);
  • Prostate abscess – the prostate cavity is filled with pus;
  • Inflammation of the reproductive organs around the prostate;
  • Inflammation of the tube that carries sperm from the testicle to the ejaculatory duct (epididymitis).

There is no evidence that prostatitis can lead to prostate cancer.

Treatment and prevention

The first thing to do is to visit a urologist. And do it on time. If your beloved man has the following symptoms, convince him to see a doctor. After all, only a qualified specialist can prescribe treatment that matches the type of prostatitis.

Treatment of bacterial prostatitis

In the case of acute bacterial inflammation, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics, which will be administered by intravenous drip. Then you need to take antibacterial drugs for about a month. If the symptoms persist, a man may be prescribed low doses of antibiotics for a longer period.

If there are concomitant diseases, in particular urolithiasis, it will also need to be treated. After all, it will cause prostatitis again and again. Plus, if there are complications, such as an abscess, it will have to be drained.

Extremely rarely, in case of severe complications and malignant tumors, a man may be recommended to remove part or all of the prostate gland (prostatectomy).

Discomfort can be reduced by symptomatic treatment. These include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, painkillers, and alpha-blockers that help relax the urinary tract.

Therapy for chronic pelvic pain

This is also usually about symptomatic treatment to alleviate the general condition and relieve tension from the prostate gland. Chronic prostatitis is quite difficult to treat, so it may take several months to recover.

Urinary catheter. If you have difficulty urinating, your doctor will recommend a catheter – a thin tube that is inserted into the urethra. This will help to empty the bladder.
Prostate massage. Two to three times a week, a healthcare professional will massage the gland through the anus. It helps to release fluid from the prostate ducts.
Physiotherapy. If the disease is caused by weak pelvic floor muscles, a physiotherapist will prescribe exercises to strengthen them. Kegel exercises are one of the most effective ways, you may find detailed instructions in this article. By the way, you can start even before problems appear.


Dear men, please use condoms during every anal sex! Take care of your prostate health and the health of your partner! Drink at least 3 liters of clean water without gas per day! Have an annual check-up with glucose control and blood pressure measurement. Timely detection of arterial hypertension is the key to maintaining healthy blood vessels, without them, you can’t have good erection.
The health of your prostate is literally in your hands.

Yes, the best way to treat prostatitis is to prevent it. And traditionally, this means changing your lifestyle. A healthy diet with a limit on spicy foods, caffeine, and alcohol is the first step. Smoking should also be avoided. Regular physical activity, an active lifestyle and, of course, Kegel exercises are another elements of prostatitis prevention. Psychological therapy, relaxation and adequate perception of stressful situations, possibly with a psychotherapist or psychologist, will help relieve tension, which is a risk factor for prostatitis.

There are simple ways to alleviate symptoms and even prevent them. For example, put a pillow on your chair while working at the computer. And warm sitting baths help to relax the pelvic floor.

Share this material with your husband or friend so that everyone understands that even such an “inconvenient” disease as prostatitis can be prevented!

You can learn more about men’s health in my webinar Health of the Man You Love.

I’m eager to file all of these courses in English, just send me a request to dr.silinaeducation@gmail.com.

You can always find your male doctor at the Lior Medical Center.

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